Stallings, J., and A. Porter. Final Report, Volume III. Administration for Children, Youth, and Families. Department of Health and Human Services, SRI Project 6903.
Stith, S. M., and A. J. Davis. 1984. “Employed Mothers and Family Day-Care Substitute Caregivers: A Comparative Analysis of Infant Care.” Child Development 55: 1340–1348.
St. Sauver, J., M. Khurana, A. Kao, and B. Foxman. 1998. “Hygienic Practices and Acute Respiratory Illness in Family and Group Day Care Homes.” Public Health Reports 111: 544-551.
U.S General Accounting Office. 1990. Early Childhood Education: What Are the Costs of High Quality Programs? HRD-90-43BR. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office.
Vandell, D. L. 1998. “Child Care for Low-Income Families: Dreams and Real Life.” In Children and Families in an Era of Rapid Change: Creating a Shared Agenda for Researchers, Practitioners and Policy Makers, ed. Hagen, R. Robinson, and Cheryl Clark. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.
Vandell, D. L., and M. A. Corasaniti. 1990. “Variations in Early Child Care: Do They Predict Subsequent Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Differences?” Early Childhood Research Quarterly 5: 55–72.
Vandell, D. L., V. K. Henderson, and K. S. Wilson. 1988. “A Longitudinal Study of Children with Day-Care Experiences of Varying Quality.” Child Development 59: 1286–1292.
Vandell, D. L., and J. K. Posner. 1999. “Conceptualization and Measurement of Children’s After-school Environments.” In Measuring Environments Across the Lifespan: Emerging Methods and Concepts, ed. S. L. Friedman and T. Wachs. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
Vandell, D. L., and C. Powers. 1983. “Daycare Quality and Children’s Free Play Activities.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 53: 493–500.
Vernon-Feagans, L., D. C. Emanuel, and I. Blood. 1997. “The Effect of Otitis Media and Quality Daycare on Children’s Language Development.” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 18: 395–409.
Volling, B. L., and L. V. Feagans. 1995. “Infant Day Care and Children’s Social Competence.” Infant Behavior and Development 18: 177–188.
Whitebook, M., C. Howes, and D. Phillips. 1990. “Who Cares? Child Care Teachers and the Quality of Care in America.” Final Report, National Child Care Staffing Study. Oakland, CA: Child Care Employee Project.
Whitebook, M., L. Sakai, and C. Howes. 1997. “NAEYC Accreditation as a Stragegy for Improving Child Care Quality: An Assessment.” Final Report, National Center for the Early Childhood Work Force. Washington, DC.
Yarrow, M. R., and C. Zahn-Waxler. 1979. “Observing Interaction: A Confrontation with Methodology.” In The Analysis of Social Interactions: Methods, Issues and Illustrations, ed. R. B. Cairns. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
1) The authors gratefully thank the following for their contributions to this paper: Josephine Chung, Kim Pierce, Scott Scriver, and Elisabeth Boehnen for their research assistance and Dawn Duren, Jan Blakeslee, Elizabeth Evanson for their editorial and typing assistance.
F. Lamb-Parker, J
2) The NHES survey included an early childhood program participation component in its 1995 survey. Parents of 14,000 children from birth through third grade were asked about their use of a wide variety of childcare and early education arrangements.
3) According to several studies, low-income families use more of certain types of child care and less of others than do families with RI payday loans more income or more education (see Figure 6).
According to the study by the National Academy (Phillips, 1995) low-income families “are more likely to rely on relatives and less likely to rely on center-based arrangements. . . Grandparents are an especially prominent source of child care for low-income, preschool-age children: 17 percent are cared for mainly by grandparents; 29 percent get some care from a grandparent. The child care arrangements of low-income families also vary greatly by household type and parental employment status. . . Single employed mothers rely to a much greater extent on non-relative arrangements (notably family day care homes and centers) than do other types of low-income families. In addition, among low-income families, about 24 percent of children under age 5 are in more than one supplemental arrangement on a regular basis (Brayfield et al., 1993). Reliance on multiple arrangements varies, however, from 14 percent of low-income preschoolers with two parents to 31 percent of those in single-mother families and 45 percent of those in employed, single-mother families”(Phillips, 1995, Chapter 2).